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It is the hole on the iris of the lens specified in F stop number of the lens. The bigger the hole is the more light can pass, the lower F number, but the shallower the field of depth. The smaller the hole is the other way around.
Amount of light given to the camera sensor. the exposure is controlled by the aperture (iris) and the shutter speed. the longer exposure, the more light the sensor can gather. But it has to be less tha 1/30 seconds to produce 30ips images. the longer the exposure, the more likely to have motion blur. automatically controlled by camera, but can be adjusted to go over 1/30 seconds in a low light environment.
Pan Tilt Zoom camera. Typically, PTZ camera has a zoom/auto focus camera module on a robotic pan/tilt module. Most PTZ camera comes with many independent features such as preset, tour, pattern, panning, homing fuction, and alarm association. But mostly used in conjunction with a VMS system to control the camera in live watch/monitoring mode using a device called Keyboard/Joystick. Legacy PTZ cameras are typically controlled using a vendor specific protocol over serial communication or coaxitron. Most IP PTZ cameras use IP communication instead but often come with RS485 interface as well.
[A]Alarm Out (Relay / TTL)
Open Collector or Relay output. Used as a switch to drive an output with a specified load. Refer to the manual for further details. You can connect a siren, buzzer or magnet actuators, etc.